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In India, lung cancer is the most common cancer and cancer related mortality in men. It accounts for about 6.9 percent of all new carcinoma cases and 9.3 % of all cancer related deaths in both sexes. The highest reported incidents are from Mizoram in both males as well as females and there is a significance rise in Delhi, Chennai and Bangalore.

Most of the risk factors associated with this are preventable when taken treatment for lung cancer stage 4 in Delhi. Smoking tobacco, both cigarettes and beedis is undoubtedly the major risk factor. The important risk factors unique to our region are such as indoor air pollution, use of domestic or biomass fuel exposure, diet pattern and certain occupations. Environmental and occupational interventions are necessary to reduce the risk factors and hence diminish the incidence of lung cancer by means of primary prevention according to the lung cancer specialist in Delhi.

Clinical features

Cough is the earliest symptom, which is often dry. Though secondary infection may cause purulent sputum. Changed character of smoker’s cough should always raise suspicion of lung cancer. Chest pain may be present due to pleural or chest wall invasion. Hemoptysis occurs in fewer than 50% of the patients presenting for the first time. There may also be unexplained weight loss. Breathlessness can be either due to collapse, pneumonia, pleural effusion or diaphragmatic paralysis associated with lung cancer. Other features are seen due to local spread to other structures or due to metastatic spread.

Histological types

Diagnosis

Early detection by careful investigation is the key to diminish mortality.

Chest X-Ray: It detects most of the lung cancers but some, particularly early curable tumors are hidden by other structures. Secondary effects such as pleural effusion, distal collapse and raised hemidiaphragm may be evident.

CT: It is the first process for lung cancer treatment in Delhi hospitals. Individuals with high risk but no signs and symptoms should also undergo low dose spiral CT (LDCT) scanning of the chest. It helps to detect even small nodules at its earliest, most treatable stage. It is painless and noninvasive. LDCT gives decent images wherein almost 90% of abnormalities can be detected, that too with far less radiation.

Others include PET scan, bronchoscopy, endobronchial ultrasound and sputum cytology.

Surgical management of lung cancer

The aim of the procedure is to remove all cancer (primary tumor and regional lymph nodes) but also conserve as much lung as possible. Surgery with curative intent is offered to patients with early stage lung cancer (T1-3, N0-1).

Segmentectomy and Wedge Resection

This is performed in patients with small tumors and moderate fitness through thoracotomy or Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS). Each lobe of the lung has segments, which allows anatomical dissection and ligation of the segmental pulmonary artery, vein and bronchus (segmentectomy) or non-anatomical segmental excision can be performed combined with removal of regional draining lymph nodes.

Lobectomy

It is the treatment of choice for early stage lung cancer patients. It involves resection of lobe after dissection and ligation of hilar structure of a particular lobe.

Pneumonectomy

It is removal of the whole lung. It is reserved for centrally placed tumors involving the main bronchus or those that straddle the fissure. Pneumonectomy involves dissecting all the blood vessels and airway structures for the concerned lung. The structures are divided and the specimen extracted. Pneumonectomy is not tolerated as well as lobectomy, and is reserved for very specific types of tumors.


Postoperative care: Mobilization, breathing exercises and regular physiotherapy are begun as soon as the patient’s condition permits.

Refer to a lung cancer surgeon in Delhi in case you are witnessing the symptoms of lung cancer. It is always advisable to look for best lung cancer treatment in Delhi before it is too late.